Friday, April 30, 2004


Pinyin �Dadu�, also spelled �Taidu�, Mongol �Khanbaliq� the city of Peking (q.v.) under the Mongols.

Thursday, April 29, 2004

Paraguay, Relief

The Regi�n Oriental, with an area of about 61,700 square miles, is an extension of the Brazilian Plateau and

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

La Marmora, Alfonso Ferrero

A graduate of the Turin Military Academy, La Marmora entered the army in 1823 and first distinguished himself in the Italian wars of independence against Austria, especially at Borghetto and Peschiera (May 1848). He also

Tuesday, April 27, 2004

Cond�, Louis Ii De Bourbon, 4e Prince De

The princes de Cond� were the heads of an important French branch of the House of Bourbon. The Great Cond� was the elder son of Henry II de Bourbon, 3rd prince de Cond�, and of his wife, Charlotte

Monday, April 26, 2004

Eybesch�tz, Jonathan

As a rabbi in a number of European towns, Eybesch�tz became a celebrated master of the Talmud (the rabbinical compendium of law, lore, and commentary),

Sunday, April 25, 2004

Wagner, Honus

The �Flying Dutchman� played for the Louisville Colonels

Saturday, April 24, 2004

Quimby, Phineas Parkhurst

Quimby employed hypnosis as a means of healing but discovered that he could also heal by suggestion. He held that all illness is basically a matter of the mind and that it results from the patient's

Friday, April 23, 2004

De Baca

In 1541 explorer Francisco

Thursday, April 22, 2004

Boilly, Louis-l�opold

Boilly, the son of a wood-carver, painted portraits for a living before moving to Paris in 1785. There he began to paint the detailed anecdotal pictures of fashionable

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Scandinavian Literature, Romanticism

Political changes in Sweden up to 1804 meant that ardent nationalism emerged as a characteristic of Swedish Romanticism. The idealism at the core of this movement was laid by the Kantian teaching of Benjamin H�ijer and the impact of Friedrich Schiller, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and the German Romantics on Swedish literature. Student societies and their periodicals,

Monday, April 19, 2004

Bouvard, Alexis

Astronomer and director of the Paris Observatory, who is noted for discovering eight comets and writing Tables astronomiques of Jupiter and Saturn (1808) and of Uranus (1821). Bouvard's tables accurately predicted orbital locations of Jupiter and Saturn, but his tables for Uranus failed, leading him to hypothesize that irregularities in Uranus'

Saturday, April 17, 2004


City, Morgan county, west-central Illinois, U.S. Laid out in 1825 as the county seat and named in honour of Andrew Jackson, it soon acquired a distinctive educational, institutional, and religious character, which it largely retains. Illinois College (founded there in 1829 and affiliated with the United Church of Christ) was the first in the state to graduate a college class. Other

Friday, April 16, 2004

Wang Ch'ung

A rationalistic naturalist during an age of superstition, Wang dared attack the belief in omens and portents that had begun to creep into the Confucian doctrines. He helped pave the way for the critical spirit of the next philosophical period and prepared China for

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Constantine, Arch Of

(AD 312), one of three surviving ancient Roman triumphal arches in Rome. Erected hastily to celebrate Constantine's victory over Maxentius, it incorporates sculptures from many earlier buildings, including part of a battle frieze and figures of prisoners from the Forum of Trajan, a series of Hadrianic roundels, and a set of eight Aurelian panels.

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Atchafalaya River

Distributary of the Red and Mississippi rivers in Louisiana, U.S. It branches southwest from the Red River near a point in east-central Louisiana where the Old River (about 7 miles [11 km] long) links the Red River with the Mississippi, and it flows generally south for about 140 miles (225 km) to Atchafalaya Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico in southern Louisiana. Its length including

Tuesday, April 13, 2004

�crins National Park

Nature reserve located in the d�partements of Hautes-Alpes and Is�re, southeastern France. The park, which was created in 1973, occupies 226,694 acres (91,740 hectares) and is the second largest national park in France. It encompasses the Alpine peaks of Barre des �crins (13,457 feet [4,102 m]), La Meije (13,067 feet [3,983 m]), Ailefroide, and Pelvoux, as well as numerous lakes, cirques, and gorges. Forests of larch cover the

Monday, April 12, 2004

Algeria, Mining

The main mining centres are at Ouenza and Djebel Onk near the eastern border with Tunisia and at El-Abed in the west, the latter the source of most of Algeria's zinc and lead production. Nearly all of the country's substantial output of high-grade iron ore from the open-cut works at Ouenza is used to supply the domestic steel industry. About one-third of Djebel Onk's phosphate

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Maurice, Furnley

At age 14 Wilmot worked in a Melbourne bookshop, rising to the position of manager. When the business was dissolved in 1929, he operated

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Rabelais, Fran�ois

Rabelais's purpose in the four books of his masterpiece was to entertain the cultivated reader at the expense of the follies and exaggerations of his times. If he points lessons, it is because his life has taught him something about the evils of comatose monasticism, the trickery of lawyers, the pigheaded persistence of litigants, and the ignorance of grasping physicians.

Thursday, April 08, 2004

Graham, Katharine

The daughter of the publisher Eugene Meyer and the educator Agnes Meyer, Katharine Meyer attended Vassar College from 1934 to 1936 and then transferred to the University of Chicago, graduating in 1938. After a year as a reporter for the

Wednesday, April 07, 2004


City, seat (1810) of Cuyahoga county, northeastern Ohio, U.S. It is a major St. Lawrence Seaway port on the southern shore of Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. Greater Cleveland sprawls along the lake for about 90 miles (145 km) and runs 25 miles (40 km) inland, encompassing Cuyahoga, Lake, Geauga, and Medina counties and more than 70 suburban communities, including Lakewood, Parma, Shaker

Tuesday, April 06, 2004


Valley, Maui county, northwestern Maui Island, Hawaii, U.S., on the eastern slope of Puu Kukui Mountain. Formed by erosion of the caldera whose volcano created the island's western peninsula, the valley comprises a deep, narrow gorge 5 miles (8 km) long and flanked by heavily forested walls almost a mile in height. Iao Needle, a volcanic monolith 2,250 feet (686 m) high, soars nearly straight

Monday, April 05, 2004

San Diego

Port, city, and important U.S. military and naval base, seat (1850) of San Diego county, southern California, U.S. It lies along the Pacific Ocean at San Diego Bay (there bridged to Coronado). Sighted in 1542 and named San Miguel by Juan Rodr�guez Cabrillo, the area was renamed San Diego de Alcal� de Henares in 1602 by Sebasti�n Vizca�no. Gaspar de Portol� founded a presidio (military post) there

Sunday, April 04, 2004

Poland, History Of, The Saxons

The �Saxon Era� lasted for more than 60 years and marked the lowest point in Polish history. Research since the 1980s has somewhat corrected the largely negative picture of Augustus II and Augustus III by stressing the context in which they operated: anarchic political life dominated by factions of struggling oligarchs and open to meddling by the neighbouring powers.

Saturday, April 03, 2004


Biblical �Sephar�, classical �Sapphar�, or �Saphar� ancient Arabian site located southwest of Yarim in southern Yemen. It was the capital of the Himyarites, a tribe that ruled much of southern Arabia from about 115 BC to about AD 525. Up until the Persian conquest (c. AD 575), Zafar was one of the most important and celebrated towns in southern Arabia - a fact attested to not only by Arab geographers and historians but also by Greek and Roman authors.

Friday, April 02, 2004

Marseillaise, La

After France declared war on Austria on April 20, 1792, P.F. Dietrich, the mayor of Strasbourg (where Rouget de Lisle was then quartered), expressed the need for a marching song for the French troops. �La

Thursday, April 01, 2004

Fiscal Policy

The usual goals of both fiscal and monetary policy are to achieve or maintain full employment, to achieve or