Tuesday, November 30, 2004

Salih, 'ali 'abd Allah

Salih attended the local Qur'anic school and joined the army at age 16. Four years later, on September 26, 1962, he led a military coup that replaced the Islamic monarch of North Yemen with

Monday, November 29, 2004

Abel, Rudolf (ivanovich)

Genrich Fischer (or Fisher), Abel's father and a friend of

Sunday, November 28, 2004

Arishima Takeo

Arishima was the eldest son of a talented and aristocratic family; his younger brothers included the painter Arishima Ikuma and the novelist Satomi Ton. He went to the Peers School, where he was chosen as a companion to the crown prince. He went

Saturday, November 27, 2004

Elizabeth I

Although her small kingdom was threatened by grave internal divisions, Elizabeth's blend of shrewdness, courage, and majestic self-display

Friday, November 26, 2004

Scandinavian Literature, Neoromantic revival

In the 1890s a Neoromantic poetic revival occurred, reinstating the value of emotion and fantasy. The leader of these Symbolist poets was Johannes J�rgensen, whose finest works show a simplicity of style and intensity of feeling. Other poets of the time included Viggo Stuckenberg, who expressed sad resignation; Sophus Claussen, whose poems, often obscure, show sensuality,

Thursday, November 25, 2004


The anthology consists of 10 books, containing,

Wednesday, November 24, 2004


Loralai district (area 7,364 sq mi [19,073 sq km]), constituted in 1903, consists of a series of long, narrow valleys hemmed in by rugged mountains

Tuesday, November 23, 2004


Pocket-billiards game, named for the similarity in its scoring system to the American game played with bat and ball, in which players attempt to score runs by pocketing 21 consecutively numbered object balls, the number of runs scored corresponding to the total of the numbers on the balls pocketed. Players are allowed nine innings, in each of which they play until they

Monday, November 22, 2004

Burges, William

During Burges' apprenticeship he studied medieval architecture, visiting the Continent to gain firsthand impressions. In 1856 he received the first award in an international competition for the Cathedral of Lille, France. He designed the Cathedral

Sunday, November 21, 2004


The art and technology of motion-picture photography. It involves such techniques as the general composition of a scene; the lighting of the set or location; the choice of cameras, lenses, filters, and film stock; the camera angle and movements; and the integration of any special effects. All these concerns may involve a sizable crew on a feature film, headed by a person

Friday, November 19, 2004

Radio Range

In aerial navigation, a system of radio transmitting stations, each of which transmits a signal that not only carries identification but also is of intrinsic value to a navigator in fixing his position. The older �A - N� type, dating from 1927, operates at low and medium frequencies and is still in use, mainly by private light aircraft. The only equipment needed in the aircraft

Thursday, November 18, 2004


City, southern Bolivia, situated at 6,122 feet (1,866 m) above sea level in the R�o Grande de Tarija (Guadalquivir) Valley. Founded in 1574 by the conquistador Luis de Fuentes as San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarija, it is one of Bolivia's oldest settlements. The inhabitants are well known for their outdoor religious processions. Although the city is accessible by air and road, transport

Wednesday, November 17, 2004

Faenza Majolica

Majolica also spelled �Maiolica, � tin-glazed earthenware produced in the city of Faenza in the Emilia district of Italy from the late 14th century. Early Faenza ware is represented by green and purple jugs decorated with Gothic lettering and heraldic lions and by Tuscan oak leaf jars. The first significant majolica piece, a wall plaque, is dated 1475. Typical Renaissance motifs appear on 15th-century ware,

Tuesday, November 16, 2004

Aethelred I

By his father's will he should have succeeded to Wessex on the death of his eldest brother Aethelbald (d. 860). He seems, however, to have stood aside in favour of his brother Aethelberht, king of Kent, to whose joint kingdoms he succeeded in 865 or 866. Aethelred's reign was one long struggle against the Danes. In the year of his

Monday, November 15, 2004

Rydberg, Johannes Robert

Educated at the University of Lund, Rydberg received his bachelor's degree in 1875 and his doctorate in mathematics in 1879. He became lecturer in physics there in 1882 and assistant at the Physics Institute in 1892. He was permanent professor of physics from 1901 until his retirement in

Sunday, November 14, 2004


Barrier erected to confine or exclude people or animals, to define boundaries, or to decorate. Timber, earth, stone, and metal are widely used for fencing. Fences of living plants have been made in many places, such as the hedges of Great Britain and continental Europe and the cactus fences of Latin America. In well-timbered country, such as colonial and 19th-century North

Saturday, November 13, 2004

Nicholson, Ben

The son of the painter Sir William Nicholson, he was largely self-taught and only briefly attended the Slade School of Fine Art (1910 - 11), London. He traveled extensively in Europe between 1911 and 1914 and in 1917 visited

Friday, November 12, 2004

Lateran Council

The first Lateran Council, the ninth ecumenical council (1123), was held during the reign of Pope Calixtus II; no acts or contemporary accounts survive. The council promulgated a number of canons (probably 22), many of which merely reiterated decrees of earlier councils. Much

Thursday, November 11, 2004

Tyrant Flycatcher

Also called �New World Flycatcher, � any of about 367 species of aggressive, insect-eating New World birds of the family Tyrannidae (order Passeriformes). About one-third of the species are not flycatcher-like in habit and bear names derived from their habitats (e.g., bush tyrant, marsh tyrant) or from their similarity to the songbird groups (tit-tyrant, shrike-tyrant). A few are

Wednesday, November 10, 2004


Puerperal changes begin almost immediately after delivery, triggered by a sharp drop in the levels of estrogen and progesterone

Tuesday, November 09, 2004

Gatun Lake

Spanish �Lago Gat�n, � long artificial lake in Panama, constituting part of the Panama Canal system; its area is 166 square miles (430 square km). It was formed by damming the Chagres River and its smaller affluents at Gatun at the north end of the lake. Its dam (completed 1912) and spillway, a key structure of the Panama Canal, operate at a range of 5 feet (1.5 m) between water levels of 87 and 82 feet (26.5 and 25 m) above sea level. The

Monday, November 08, 2004

Claudius Gothicus

Claudius was an army officer under the emperor Gallienus from 260 to 268 - a period of devastation of much of the Roman Empire by invading tribes. Rising to the command of Gallienus' newly

Sunday, November 07, 2004

Kuharic, Franjo Cardinal

Croatian Roman Catholic cleric (b. April 15, 1919, Pribic, Yugos. - d. March 11, 2002, Zagreb, Croatia), served as a strong nationalist symbol for his countrymen during Croatia's 1991 secession from Yugoslavia and the war that ensued (1991 - 95). In his role as archbishop of Zagreb (1970 - 97) and, thus, Roman Catholic primate of Croatia, Kuharic condemned religious intolerance and violence against Serbs and Muslims.

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Altizer, Thomas J.j.

A graduate of the University of Chicago (A.B. 1948, A.M. 1951, Ph.D. 1955), Altizer taught religion first at Wabash College (Crawfordsville, Ind.), from 1954 to 1956, and then at Emory University (Atlanta, Ga.) from 1956 to 1968 before becoming a professor of English at the State University of New York at Stony

Friday, November 05, 2004

Wallace, Lewis

The son of an Indiana governor, Wallace left school at 16 and became a copyist in the county clerk's office, reading in his leisure time. He began his study of law in his father's office but left to recruit volunteers

Thursday, November 04, 2004

Hawd Plateau

Hawd also spelled �Haud, � plateau sloping southeastward and spanning the northern Ethiopian-Somali border, southeast of the northern Somalian highlands. It covers an area of about 25,000 square miles (64,750 square km) and slopes from about 4,000 feet (1,220 m) in the northwest to about 1,500 feet (450 m) in the southeast. It is a vast savanna of varying fertility and is a major wet-season grazing area for herds of camels, goats, and

Wednesday, November 03, 2004

Goulburn Islands

Group of islands in the Arafura Sea off the northern coast of Arnhem Land in Northern Territory, Australia. They comprise South Goulburn Island (30 square miles [78 square km]), lying 2 miles (3 km) offshore across Macquarie Strait; North Goulburn Island (14 square miles [36 square km]), 10 miles (16 km) offshore; and some small sandy islets. Perhaps sighted in 1644 by the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman,

Tuesday, November 02, 2004

Pugachov, Yemelyan Ivanovich

An illiterate Don Cossack, Pugachov fought in the Russian Army in the final battles of the Seven Years' War (1756 - 63), in Russia's campaign in Poland (1764), and in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768 - 74. Following the siege and conquest of Bendery (1769 - 70), however, he returned

Monday, November 01, 2004


In excavation, precision finishing vehicle for final shaping of surfaces on which pavement will be placed. Between its front and rear wheels a grader carries a broad mechanically or hydraulically controlled blade that can be extended from either side. Either end of the blade can be raised or lowered. Graders may be used for shallow ditching, but most models are used