Saturday, July 31, 2004

Manet, �douard

French painter who broke new ground by defying traditional techniques of representation and by choosing subjects from the events and circumstances of his own time. His D�jeuner sur l'herbe (�Luncheon on the Grass�), exhibited in 1863 at the Salon des Refus�s, aroused the hostility of critics and the enthusiasm of the young painters who

Friday, July 30, 2004

Van Deman, Esther Boise

Van Deman earned bachelor's (1891) and master's (1892) degrees from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. After teaching

Thursday, July 29, 2004

Lok Sabha

(Hindi: �House of the People�), the lower chamber of India's bicameral parliament. Under the constitution of 1950, it is elected for a term of five years by universal suffrage for citizens 18 and older. Members are elected directly from territorial constituencies in the states. In the early 1990s the Lok Sabha had 543 elected members; 13 of these represented the union territories. Two additional

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Kahn, Otto Hermann

In 1888 Kahn was sent to the London branch of Berlin's Deutsche Bank and became a British citizen. The banking house of Speyer

Tuesday, July 27, 2004

Gable, Clark

The only son of an itinerant oil-field worker, Gable embarked on an acting career while in his early 20s

Monday, July 26, 2004

Biblical Literature, Texts and versions

A small portion of this literature is preserved in the original languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. Most of the Hebrew or Aramaic works, however, exist today only in various translations: Greek, Latin, Syriac, Ethiopian, Coptic, Old Slavonic, Armenian, and Romanian. All the works of the Apocrypha are preserved in Greek, because they have for the Greek Church a canonical

Sunday, July 25, 2004

Bone Conduction

The conduction of sound through the bones of the skull. Two types of bone conduction are recognized. In compressional bone conduction, high-pitched sounds cause the segments of the skull to vibrate individually. The vibrations, by compressing the bony case of the inner ear, stimulate the sensory cells that are involved in perceiving sound waves in the air. In inertial

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Aerospace Industry, The space age

Both the Soviet and the American space industries had much the same origins and impetus. The development of intermediate-range and intercontinental missiles provided not only the critical electronic technologies but also the rockets necessary to boost small payloads into orbit. Thus, the launch of Sputnik in 1957 signaled not only Soviet technical leadership

Friday, July 23, 2004

Habsburg, House Of

Also spelled �Hapsburg�, also called �House of Austria� royal German family, one of the principal sovereign dynasties of Europe from the 15th to the 20th century.

Thursday, July 22, 2004


City, southwestern North Korea. It lies just south of the 38th parallel and northwest of Seoul, South Korea. One of the oldest cities of Korea, Kaesong was the capital of the Koryo dynasty (935 - 1392). It was formerly called Songdo (�City of Pine�), so named because it is surrounded by pine-covered mountains: Songak (2,506 feet [764 m]), Osong (3,483 feet), Nam (584 feet), and Mansu (754 feet). Kaesong is a castle city enclosed by a

Wednesday, July 21, 2004


Town (township), Newport county, southeastern Rhode Island, U.S., on Rhode (Aquidneck) Island, in Narragansett Bay. It was named for its location between the other two towns on the island, Newport and Portsmouth. Closely related to Newport, from which it was set off and incorporated in 1743, Middletown has developed as a residential suburb of that city. Middletown is the home of

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Cleopatra's Needle

Either of two monumental Egyptian obelisks. See obelisk.

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Lupemban Industry

Also called �Lupembian Industry, � a sub-Saharan African stone tool industry dating from the late Pleistocene, beginning about 40,000 years ago. The Lupemban industry was derived from and replaced the Sangoan industry, which is found in forested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The Lupemban industry is characterized by fairly small, well-shaped tools: chisels, adzes, planes (probably demonstrating intensive

Saturday, July 17, 2004

Cronstedt, Axel Fredrik

Cronstedt was the first

Friday, July 16, 2004

Halepa, Pact Of

Also called �Treaty Of Halepa, Halepa �also spelled �Khal�pa, � convention signed in October 1878 at Khal�pa, a suburb of Canea, by which the Turkish sultan Abd�lhamid II (ruled 1876 - 1909) granted a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means to quell their insurrection against Turkish overlords. It supplemented previous concessions to the Cretans - e.g., the Organic Law Constitution (1868) and the Cyprus Convention (July 4, 1878), which had been

Thursday, July 15, 2004


Songbird family, order Passeriformes, including the bishop, weaver, and whydah groups and Old World sparrows. The 135 to 155 species are native chiefly to Africa - but several have been introduced elsewhere. Ploceids are small, compact birds with short, stout bills. In many species the males are brightly coloured; some acquire, in nonbreeding season, dull plumage resembling

Wednesday, July 14, 2004

Chromium Processing

Chromium (Cr) is a brilliant, hard, refractory metal that melts at 1,857� C (3,375� F) and boils at 2,672� C (4,842� F). In the pure state, it is resistant to ordinary corrosion, resulting in its application as an electroplated protective coating for other metals. It dissolves in nonoxidizing mineral acids but not in aqua regia or nitric acid, which passivate

Tuesday, July 13, 2004


Town, northeastern Newfoundland, Canada. It lies just north of Gander Lake, 206 miles (332 km) northwest of St. John's. Gander has one of the largest international airports in North America. The site was selected as an air base in 1935 by the British Air Ministry, and transatlantic flights began in 1939. During World War II it was a vital base for air ferries to Britain and Atlantic patrol aircraft.

Monday, July 12, 2004

Campaign Furniture

Case furniture was usually teak,

Sunday, July 11, 2004


Also spelled �Malange, � town, north-central Angola. The town developed in the mid-19th century as an important feira (open-air market) on the country's principal plateau, between Luanda, now the national capital, 250 miles (400 km) to the west and the Kwango valley, inhabited by the Mbundu people, 125 miles (200 km) to the east. Situated at an elevation of 4,373 feet (1,333 m), the town has a high-altitude tropical climate. The environs

Saturday, July 10, 2004

Abd El-krim

In full� Muhammad Ibn 'abd Al-karim Al-khattabi � leader of a resistance movement against Spanish and French rule in North Africa and founder of the short-lived Republic of the Rif (1921 - 26). A skilled tactician and a capable organizer, he led a liberation movement that made him the hero of the Maghrib (northwest Africa). A precursor of the anticolonial struggle for independence, Abd el-Krim was defeated

Friday, July 09, 2004

Wilson, August

Largely self-educated, Wilson grew up in poverty and quit school at age 15. He joined the black aesthetic movement in the late 1960s, became the cofounder and director

Thursday, July 08, 2004

K�chel, Ludwig (alois Ferdinand), Ritter Von

The son of a treasury official, K�chel took a doctorate

Wednesday, July 07, 2004

'abd Ar-rahman Ii

'Abd ar-Rahman II was the grandson of his namesake, founder of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain. His reign was an administrative watershed. As the influence of the 'Abba sid Caliphate, then at the peak of its splendour, grew,

Tuesday, July 06, 2004

Averescu, Alexandru

After serving in the Romanian war of independence against Turkey (Russo-Turkish War, 1877 - 78), Averescu was sent to Italy for military training. As an army

Monday, July 05, 2004

Olaf Iv Haakonsson

After Valdemar's death in 1375, Olaf was elected (1376) king of Denmark and succeeded his father as king of Norway in 1380. The government of Norway was conducted by a state council, but power was largely in the hands of Olaf's mother, who planned to unite

Sunday, July 04, 2004

Arabia, Najd

The western part of Najd (Nejd, meaning �Highland�), known as Upper Najd, lies within the Arabian shield with an average elevation of 4,000 feet; the eastern part falls within the sedimentary province with the city of Riyadh (Ar-Riyad), near the eastern edge, having an elevation of about 1,950 feet. The principal drainage of Najd consists of a number of eastward-flowing wadi systems that

Saturday, July 03, 2004


Officially �Middlesborough� city, Bell county, southeastern Kentucky, U.S., about 61 miles (98 km) north of Knoxville, Tennessee. It lies in a valley (believed to have been formed by a meteor crater) at the western end of the Cumberland Gap near where the borders of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia meet. Despite its location on the old Wilderness Road through a natural pass in the mountains, the site was not settled

Friday, July 02, 2004

Coleman, Bessie

One of 13 children, Coleman grew up in Waxahatchie, Texas, where her mathematical aptitude freed her from working in the cotton fields. She attended college in Langston, Oklahoma, briefly, then moved to Chicago, where she worked as a manicurist and restaurant

Thursday, July 01, 2004

Gull, Sir William Withey, 1st Baronet

Gull received his M.D. from the University of London in 1846 and became lecturer on physiology and anatomy and then physician, at Guy's, where he taught or served as consulting physician for the rest of his life. He